^ftf/4 r* '<*\ ^ GRANTING OF A CONSTITUTION ^05 daughter in marriage. I met His Highness first sV eighteen years ago when he was Master of the Horse" to the Heir-Apparent, and again later after his fall from office. To me he appeared to be a fine old crusty Tory who frankly disliked innovations, but was from the Persian point of view experienced and capable. Foreign questions were almost beyond his comprehension. The Visit to England of Muzaffar-u-Diny 1902.—After securing the second loan, Muzaffar-u-Din made his second journey in Europe, and on this occasion visited England.1 The Shah brayed the terrors of the Channel, which were very real to him, mainly in the expectation of receiving the Order of the Garter, of which his deceased father had been a recipient. But he was only offered a portrait of King Edward set in diamonds, which he did not accept; and he left England utterly dej ected. His prestige suffered owing to what his Court regarded as a slight, and only partial amends were made by the despatch of a special mission in the following year to bestow the coveted order. By a coincidence which was possibly designed, the long- kept secret of the new tariff was revealed by Russia at the very time when the Garter Mission was at Teheran. The Condition of Persia before the Revolution.—Before describing the events which preceded the grant of the constitution, I cannot do better than quote at some length from the memorandum drawn up by the British Legation.2 It runs as follows :— The condition of Persia had been for some time growing more and more intolerable. The Shah was entirely in the hands of a corrupt ring of courtiers who were living on the spoils of the Government and country. He had parted with the treasures inherited from his father, and with most of the Imperial and national domain. He had thus been obliged to have recourse to foreign loans, the proceeds of which he had spent in foreign travel or had lavished on his courtiers. There was a yearly deficit, and the debt of the country was growing daily. A new Grand Vizier had been appointed, whose moving 1 On the occasion of his first tour in Europe the English Court was in mourning and consequently the Shah was not invited. 2 Vide Blue Book, Persia, No. i (1909), p. 2.